WMI Home
about us Research Methods and Techniques Teaching People Publications Master and PhD theses Contact    
Methods & Techniques


Walther-Meißner-Institut (WMI), Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften
Chair for Technical Physics (E23), Technische Universität München

Experimental Methods & Techniques


Transport Properties
Low-frequency Noise
Low Noise Measurements
Magnetic properties
SQUID Magnetometry
Torque Magnetometry
Thermodynamic properties
Specific Heat
Material Analysis
X-Ray Diffraction
Thin films & nanostructures
Thin Film Deposition
µK System
Dilution Refrigerators
ULT Thermometry
Bulk materials
Crystal Growth
WMI Research Activities

The WMI is equipped with state of the art facilities for the preparation and characterization of superconducting and magnetic materials as well as for various low and ultra-low temperature experiments. In the following the main experimental and technological resources of WMI are listed:

Materials Preparation and Fabrication of Nanostructures:

  • Laser Molecular Beam Epitaxy system for oxide heterostructures (equipped with in--situ RHEED, AFM/STM system, atomic oxygen source, laser heating system, metallization)
  • UHV magnetron sputtering systems for metals (e.g. Nb, Al, NiPd, ... )
  • magnetron sputtering system for oxide heteroepitaxy (equipped with four sputtering guns and an oxygen ion gun)
  • UHV metal MBE system (equipped with e-gun and thermal evaporators)
  • reactive ion etching (RIE) system, Plasmalab 80 Plus with ICP plasma source, Oxford Instruments Plasma Technology
  • ion beam etching (IBE) system equipped with a LN2 cooled sample holder
  • polishing machine for substrate preparation
  • ultrasonic bonding machine
  • 50 m2 class 1000 clean room facility
  • optical lithography (Süss maskaligner MJB~3 and projection lithography)
  • electron beam lithography (based on Philips XL 30 SFEG scanning electron microscope and Raith Elphy Plus lithography system including a laser stage)
  • four-mirror image furnace for crystal growth


  • 2-circle x-ray diffractometer (Bruker D8 Advance, sample temperature up to 1600°C
  • high resolution 4-circle x-ray diffractometer (Bruker D8 Discover)
  • scanning electron microscope with EDX analysis
  • UHV room temperature AFM/STM system
  • 2048u high resolution mass spectrometer (Fa. Pfeiffer, cross beam ion source, SEM)
  • Low Energy Electron Diffraction (SPECTA-LEED, Fa. Omicron)
  • two Raman spectroscopy systems (1.5 to 300K, in-situ sample preparation)
  • SQUID magnetometer (Quantum Design, 1.5 to 700K, up to 7 Tesla)
  • several high field magnet systems (up to 17 Tesla) with variable temperature inserts
  • 7 Tesla split coil magnet systems with optical access and variable temperature insert
  • experimental set--ups for the measurement of noise including low noise SQUID amplifiers and signal analyzers
  • high-frequency network analyzer (up to 40 GHz) and various microwave components (sources, mixers, circulators, attenuators) for the determination of high frequency parameters
  • high-frequency cryogenic probing station (up to 20 GHz, T>4K)

Low temperature systems and techniques:

  • 5 K-Scanning Tunneling Microscope (low temperature STM, Fa. Omicron)
  • several 3He/4He dilution refrigerator inserts for temperatures down to 10 mK
  • "dry" mK-cooler based on a dilution refrigerator with pulse-tube precooling
  • ultra-low temperature facility for temperatures down to below 100 µK based on a nuclear demagnetization cryostat
  • experimental set-ups for the measurement of specific heat, magnetization, thermal expansion as well as electrical and thermal transport properties as a function of temperature, magnetic field and pressure

© Walther-Meißner-Institut Impressum | Datenschutz