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Walther-Mei▀ner-Institut (WMI), Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften



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Walther Mei▀ner and his Institute for Low Temperature Research

16.12.1882 Walther Meißner is born in Berlin
1901 - 1904 Study of mechanical engineering at the Technische Hochschule (TH) Berlin-Charlottenburg
1904 - 1906 Study of Mathematics and Physics at the University of Berlin
1907 PhD in Physics ("Zur Theorie des Strahlungsdrucks"), Thesis advisor: Max Planck
1908 Research activity in the laboratory for pyrotechnics at the Physikalisch Technische Reichsanstalt (PTR) in Berlin-Charlottenburg (president: Emil Warburg)
1911 Discovery of superconductivity (SC) of Hg in Leiden by Heike Kamerlingh-Onnes
1913 Passover to the Electrical Research Laboratory of the PTR
1913 - 1926 Investigation of transport in metals: electronic and thermal conductivity
1924 Discovery of superfluidity in liquid 4He in ...by Pjotr X. Kapitza
1922 - 1925 Installation of the world's third Helium liquifier (besides Leiden and Toronto)
1930 Assigantion of the Venia Legendi for Physics at the University Berlin
1928 - 1934 Investigation of the electronic conductivity of metals down to 1.3 K

Discovery of superconductivity in Ta, V, Ti and Nb
1933 Discovery of the magnetic field expulsion effect in superconductors (later referred to as Meißner-Ochsenfeld effect),
theoretical consulting (Max von Laue)
1934 Appointment to the Chair of Technical Physics as Professor at the TH Munich
1934 - 1952 Research and teaching activities at the TH Munich
1943 Evacuation of the low temperature laboratory to Hersching/Ammersee (two barracks)
1945 Director of the Staatliches Prüfamt für Technische Physik
1946 - 1950 Director of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences (BAdW), 
President of the Deutsches Museum in Munich
1946 Foundation of the Commission for Low Temperature Physics of the BAdW and adoption of the Herrsching barracks by the commission
01.10.1952 Retirement of Walther Meißner (Successor: Prof. Heinz Maier-Leibnitz),  Walther Meissner continues research in Herrsching
01.10.1962 Discovery of fluxoid quantization in Herrsching by Robert Doll and Martin Näbauer
1965 - 1967 Construction of the "Zentralinstitut für Tieftemperaturforschung" (ZTTF) in Garching, Director: Prof. Heinz Maier-Leibnitz, Technical Director: Prof. Franz Xaver Eder
1971 Discovery of superfluidity in 3He at Cornell University by David Lee, Douglas Osheroff and Robert C. Richardson
until 1972 Theory group of the Institute Laue Langevin is hosted at the ZTTF 
15.11.1974  Walther Meißner dies in Munich
01.11.1980 Prof. Dr. Klaus Andres becomes Director of the ZTTF associated with the chair "Technical Physics" (E23) at the Technical University of Munich
1982 Renaming of the ZTTF into "Walther-Meißner-Institute" (WMI) on the occasion of Walther Meißner's 100. birthday
01.03.1999 Retirement of Prof. Klaus Andres
01.07.2000 Prof. Dr. Rudolf Gross becomes Director of the Walther-Meißner-Institute, associated with the chair for "Technical Physics" (E23) at the Technical University of Munich

Research at the Walther-Mei▀ner Institute

until 1970 Foundations of superconductivity (fluxoid quantization, critical currents, type-II behavior)
1970-1980 Magnetism in rare earth compounds (Kondo and crystal field effects)
Hyperfine interaction enhanced nuclear demagnetization
1977-1986 First experiments on superfluid 3He in Germany
1980-2000 Layered superconductors, intercalates
Organic superconductors,
Heavy fermion superconductivity,
Solid 3He
Calorimetric particle detection
Metal-insulator transition
Raman spectroscopy of metals and superconductors development of low and ultralow temperature techniques.
since 1983 Theory (Quantum fluids, superconductivity, transport theory)
since 2000 The research of the WMI is extended to the fields of:
-- mesoscopic physics, nanotechnology, quantum phenomena and quantum information systems
-- ordering phenomena in transition metal oxides
-- spin dependent transport, spintronics, and spin caloritronics
-- thin film technology and crystal growth for transition metal oxides
An actual overview on the research at the WMI can be found on the research page.

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